This article focuses on the reign of Cleopatra as Queen of Egypt and the historical significance of her rule. He left three legions in Alexandria to support Cleopatra and to confirm Egypt's status as a protectorate and took the treasonous Arsinoe back to Rome with him as his prisoner. When a further wave of forces led by the Prince of Pergamon arrived to support Caesar Ptolemy was forced to head south to meet them. Cleopatra used any means necessary to accomplish her goals and to protect her beloved state of Egypt. It is unlikely that the royal barge ever was used by Cleopatra, however, as Athenaeus concludes by saying that the wealth of Egypt had been dissipated by her father Ptolemy XII Auletes "flute-player" , leaving little money by the time she ascended the throne.
This site is one large link page and connects the researcher to other web sites for a listed individual. He also gave Cyprus back to Cleopatra and this increase in her revenues allowed her to reduce taxation while continuing to improve the Egyptian economy. At this point, we get to meet the other half of this pair, Julius Caesar. Caesar was 52 years old when the two met, and Cleopatra was a year-old beautiful aristocrat. But could they hold it together, or was their union doomed for failure? He then proceeded against Pharnaces II, king of Pontus, who had taken advantage of the civil war to reclaim territory lost by his father, Mithridates VI, defeating him at Zela on August 2. He oversaw a flurry of building activity, much of which was in the classical Greek-Egyptian style and set about establishing a large library in Rome the largest library at the time being the Great Library in Alexandria. Cleopatra held numerous "symposia" to which the great and good were invited to feast and listen to poetry and she seems to have been popular with Caesar's friends. However, ever the great orator, Caesar calmed the crowd by producing the will of Ptolemy Auletes decreeing that the siblings should rule together and by naming their younger siblings Ptolemy XIV and Arsinoe as the rulers of Rhodes which Rome had recently recaptured. It may also have been intended as a pilgrimage to Edfu where the connection between her son, Caesarion, and Horus could be established and his destiny as the future ruler of Egypt assured. Mark Antony was to "find" a crown and place it on Caesar's head. The assassins had hoped that the Roman people would welcome their deed but after speaking to the gathering crowd they were forced to flee to the Capitoline hill with cries for vengeance ringing in their ears. Was Caesar in love with Cleopatra? Cleopatra clearly had a profound effect on Roman art and culture. Hillard, The Classical Quarterly, 52 2 , ; Appian: Caesar held a banquet to celebrate their joint rule. Cornell University Press, Once again Cleopatra would use her charm and cunning to integrate herself with a powerful man who was part of a powerful empire. He was criticised in Rome for failing to simply absorb Egypt into the empire and for remaining too long in Egypt after the defeat of Ptolemy XIII and there were still a number of factions loyal to Pompey including a number of his sons so he had a number of important matters to attend to, but he also had to visit his Jewish allies and reward their support in the Alexandrian war. Written by Cinderella, a history lover who will not give her real name, this site provides a very detailed biography of Cleopatra VII as well as numerous links to other sources of information. Ives Gammell Studios Trust. This may have been due to his personal courage and his unwavering belief in his own martial abilities, but it is likely that his discovery that Cleopatra was pregnant with his son also played a large part in his determination. The blaze spread to some of the warehouses on the shore and in the ensuing chaos Cleopatra's younger sister Arsinoe fled with her tutor Ganymedes. Charveau, also the author of Cleopatra: This secondary source investigates her Mediterranean heritage and refutes the idea that she came from black African decent.
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